Throbbing tooth pain is a sign that you might have tooth damage. Tooth decay or a cavity can give you a toothache. Throbbing tooth pain can also happen if there is an infection in the tooth or in the gums surrounding it. Toothaches are typically caused by an infection or inflammation in the tooth. This is called pulpitis.
A cavity or crack in the tooth lets air and germs inside the tooth. This can irritate and infect the sensitive pulp nerves, leading to tooth pain.